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Description: The core theory and methodology for comparative biology, beginning with issues in building phylogenetic trees, with emphases on both morphology and molecules, and both living and fossil organisms. Also covers the many applications of phylogenetic trees to systematics, biogeography, speciation, conservation, population genetics, ecology, behavior, development, functional morphology, and macroevolution that have revolutionized those fields. Labs are closely integrated with lectures and cover the major algorithms and computer software used to implement these approaches. Requirements include participation in discussions, two exams, and a term project.